Can Mediation be Integrated into the Systems of Prosecution for Young Offenders?

May 12, 2022, 6:18 p.m.   n22saha  
Pens of Law students    



AUTHOR'S PROFILE: The author, Bhakti Parekh is enthusiastic about spreading awareness through the written word. She has a love for learning different languages as language gives insight into different thought processes and cultures. She is an avid reader and one of her favorite genres is crime thrillers


To answer the question of whether mediation can be integrated into the systems of prosecution for young offenders, we first need to understand the why behind wanting to take such a step. To understand this why, first, a few key concepts need to be understood. The concepts of restorative justice, mediation, and juvenile justice need to be understood here.

THE CONCEPT OF RESTORATIVE JUSTICE

The concept of Restorative Justice is comparatively new. Restorative justice is a broad label that encompasses a plethora of different models, roughly bound together by the belief that the traditional criminal justice system ignores a key step in rebuilding a sense of justice because of its somewhat myopic focus on punishing offenders. It views crime as more than breaking the law. Restorative justice views crime as something that also causes harm to people and the community at large. Restorative justice is described in various ways and is also commonly known as ‘reparative justice’, ‘positive justice’, and ‘communitarian justice’.It is an approach to problem-solving that, in its various forms, involves the victim, the offender, their social networks, justice agencies, and the community. The programs of restorative justice are based on the fundamental principle as mentioned before, that, criminal behavior not only violates the law but also injures victims and the community. For the redressal of consequences of criminal behavior, the efforts should, where ever possible include and involve the injured parties, and the offender, and also provide support and help that is required by the victim or offender. For the restorative justice process to work, the parties involved must actively participate in the resolution of matters and this is generally done with the help of a facilitator. Restorative processes may include mediation, conciliation, conferencing, and sentencing circles. Even though punishment may be a part of restorative justice techniques, the main aim is to focus on the relationships between the affected parties and their healing through a deliberative process. Let’s look at the objectives of restorative justice:

  • To restore peace and order in the community while repairing damaged relationships.
  • To help and support the victims of crime and a platform for them to voice themselves and to enable them to participate and address their needs.
  • To encourage offenders to take responsibility for their actions.
  • To denounce crime and criminal behavior as unacceptable and reaffirm community values.
  • To help prevent recidivism or the tendency of an offender to re-offend and to encourage the individuals to change and reintegrate into the community.

THE CONCEPT OF MEDIATION

Mediation is a voluntary collaborative process where individuals who have a conflict with one another identify issues, develop options, consider alternatives, and develop a consensual agreement with the help of a neutral intermediary (also known as a mediator). Thus, it can be said that mediation is a means to resolve disputes without resorting to litigation or other adversarial modes of dealing with conflict. The key features or characteristics of mediation are:

  • It is a voluntary process.
  • It is a process that is collaborative where the two parties can work together. Since mediation cannot be imposed, the two disputing parties may have a higher degree of motivation to solve issues.
  • It is a confidential process. Materials disclosed during mediation cannot be subsequently disclosed in a court.
  • It is a process that is satisfying and self-responsible. This means that the agreement reached between conflicting parties in mediation is usually more satisfying and the parties themselves were responsible for resolving their issues.
  • It is an impartial, neutral, and balanced approach where the mediator’s role is to ensure that the parties reach an agreement in a voluntary and informed manner.
  • It is quick and costs less. The process of mediation is quicker than litigation and the costs involved in resolving the dispute are far less than those involved in litigation.

THE CONCEPT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE

Juvenile Justice is the area of criminal law that applies to persons who are not old enough to be held responsible for criminal acts committed by them. While the system is similar to that of the adult criminal justice system, the juvenile justice system appreciates that youth are fundamentally different from adults both in terms of the level of responsibility and potential for rehabilitation. The primary goals of any juvenile justice system are skill development, habilitation, rehabilitation as well as successful reintegration of youth into the community. This can be aptly summed by citing Article 5 of the Beijing rules – “The juvenile justice system shall emphasize the well-being of the juvenile and shall ensure that any reaction to juvenile offenders shall always be in proportion to the circumstances of both the offenders and the offense.” Usually, people below the age of 18 years are considered to be juveniles. To some extent, the juvenile justice system operates on the principle of ‘parens patriae’ which means that the state could act as a parent of the nation or the state could act as a parent for certain classes of people in need of protection.

MEDIATION AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE: HOW AND WHY

Mediation is one of the few techniques or methods that incorporates the ideals and principles of restorative justice. It should then be noted that one of the major methods or techniques of restorative justice in the criminal justice arena is that of victim-offender mediation. In this type of mediation, the victim gets a chance to voluntarily face the offender in a secure and safe space. A trained mediator is also present to facilitate the whole process. The primary actors needed for the victim-offender mediation as the name suggests are the victims and offenders. However, in certain cases, these two parties could be joined by family members and other individuals whom either party wishes to include. In this process, a chance is given to the offender to understand the effects and consequences of his crime, and further, a chance is given to make amends with the victim. However, it should be noted that victim-offender mediation is slightly different from other kinds and forms of mediation. In victim-offender mediation, the parties involved are not disputants and generally, one of the parties has committed an offense and the other party has been victimized. The guilt or innocence of the offender is not to be meditated on. Other forms of mediation are settlement driven whereas victim-offender mediation is ‘dialogue driven’. The emphasis is laid on victim empowerment, offender accountability, and the restoration of losses.

As to why victim-offender mediation is said to be more effective, there are a few strong reasons. This alternate method which uses the principles of restorative justice is considered to be an effective alternative to incarceration or prison. Incarceration of juveniles has the effect of pushing them down the road of crime. Prisons have a high running cost too. Another reason is that the system of incarceration focuses on the offenders and not on the victims. Let’s now, have a look at the reasons why victim-offender mediation, a restorative justice technique works better or is a more effective alternative to the traditional form of retributive justice.

  • Restored offenders are less likely to offend a second time: Studies have shown that detention or incarceration is not effective enough to deter youth from reoffending. There is evidence that suggests and points out that restorative justice techniques tend to reduce the instances of reoffending. These techniques have a higher rate of success in reducing recidivism than court processes. Further, “studies have shown that low-level juvenile offenders are less likely to re-offend if, rather than being incarcerated, they are allowed to remain within their communities and are given access to community-based programs.
  • Victim-Offender mediation is more cost-efficient in nature: Detention centres and jails made especially for juveniles or youth tend to have a high working cost. Community programs along with victim-offender mediation have lower costs.
  • Juveniles or youth are more likely to be restored through restorative justice techniques: Juveniles are majorly different from adults. There is a reason that juveniles are not given the responsibilities and privileges that are conferred to adults for a reason. Their irresponsible conduct then should also be treated differently and should not be considered as morally reprehensible as that of adults. Since juveniles have different developmental needs and medical science shows that the brain of an adolescent is not fully developed, particularly the area of the prefrontal cortex which is critical to impulse control; there is a better chance to restore and change the ways of juveniles.
  • Victims get to voice their opinions and needs: In the traditional criminal justice system, the focus is on the offender and punishing the said offender. In victim-offender mediation as well as other restorative techniques, the victim gets the opportunity to voice their needs and feel heard. It can be said that in the traditional justice system, the victim is completely forgotten in the aftermath of the crime. A study that tried to gauge the effectiveness of victim-offender mediation has shown that victims were more likely to benefit from the mediation process that from a normal court process.
  • The community is also benefitted: The Community on a whole is benefitted from victim-offender mediation and other similar restorative techniques and programs because these lead to lower rates of recidivism and the offenders feel morally obligated to restitute the victims. The offenders are more likely to follow through on the restitution agreements as well as any community service they agree to.

It should, however, be noted that victim-offender mediation has its shortcomings or weaknesses despite it being a highly effective alternative to the court processes.

  • There is a lack of adequate guidelines to ensure an effective and ethical process. Many times, mediators lack formal training and this could lead to inappropriate referrals to the programs as well as unhappy participants.
  • Participation needs to be voluntary and not forced onto the parties. Forcing parties into victim-offender mediation may lead to further victimization of the victims and also not help in reforming or restoring the offenders. A feeling of loss of control will prevail which in turn would lead to ineffective dialogue.
  • Another issue is the protection provided to the victims while facing their offender. Sometimes, the protection and safety afforded to the victims are not enough and it could lead to re-victimization when the victims confront their offenders.

DIFFERENT SYSTEMS OF PROSECUTION WHERE MEDIATION HAS BEEN INCORPORATED IN JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS

Victim-Offender Mediation has been around for almost 5 decades now. The first Victim-Offender Reconciliation Project was initiated in Kitchener, Ontario, Canada in 1974. The first mediation involved two boys who had destroyed the property of victims during a drunken rampage. The boys did not have any prior offenses and keeping this in mind their probation officer recommended that instead of punishment, the juveniles face their victims. The judge agreed to this proposal. The boys went to the homes of their victims and further confessed to their criminal activity of destroying property. The boys then worked out restitution agreements with their victims and within a short span of three months paid back all the losses. The offenders, the boys, experienced meaningful accountability that would not have been possible if they were punished and incarcerated by the court. This episode then led to the creation and establishment of the first North American victim-offender mediation or reconciliation program. Vitim-offender mediation was then successfully replicated in the United States of America in 1978. It continued to grow and received recognition from the American Bar Association in 1994 when the Association endorsed the alternative practice of victim-offender mediation. In Sweden, the practise of victim-offender mediation grew spontaneously without intervention or interference from the State. The first mediation projects were initiated at the end of the 1980s and their focus was on children and young people aged between 8 to 18 years who had committed a crime. By the beginning of the 1990s, a handful of mediation projects had also begun in several local municipalities in Sweden. The Mediation Act came into force in 2002 and is the first regulation in the country of Sweden that deals with victim-offender mediation. Further, it should be noted that across the world there have been countries that had strived to develop victim-offender mediation programs. In New Zealand, for example, victim-offender mediation programs are available in all jurisdictions.

vomtable1.gif

As can be seen from the table above, there are quite a few countries that have developed victim-offender mediation programs.

SCENARIO IN INDIA

In India, the scenario is slightly different. India being an adversarial justice system, expressly discourages the practice of mediation for criminal offenses. The justification given for this is that crime is a wrong against society rather than an individual. The system does not thus, stress the concepts of forgiveness or reconciliation. Over the years, the law has tried and attempted to remedy the situation to some extent by providing for the compounding of offenses for certain non-serious crimes. This compounding of offenses refers to the forbearance from prosecution due to an amicable settlement that has been reached between the two parties where the victim condones the behavior of the offender who shows his repentance through certain actions. The Indian scenario and jurisprudence are however slowly changing. A victim-centric approach is being adopted by the court in matrimonial disputes where criminal elements are present. A case in point is that of B.S. Joshi v. the State of Haryana, where the court quashed the FIR because an amicable divorce settlement had been reached and opined that the mutual willingness of the parties to settle their differences amicably rendered the subsequent court proceeding contrary to the objective of section 489A of IPC. Another case is that of Ashok Sadarangani v. Union of India where the court opined that in the light of a compromise having been arrived at between the parties, the subsistence of criminal court proceedings is an exercise in futility.

Thus, it can be noticed that slowly and steadily India is also moving towards the acceptance of the concepts of restorative justice.

ANSWERING THE QUESTION

To conclude, It would be pertinent to state here the proverb, ‘Where there is a will, there is a way.’ It is possible to incorporate mediation in criminal cases, especially those which involve juveniles. This is because the juvenile justice systems across the world to a great extent do appreciate the differences between adults and juveniles. Further, as research has shown, it is easier to reform and restore juveniles when they are in their communities. As can be seen from the various countries that have already made successful efforts in implementing and developing victim-offender mediation programs, it is clear that it is possible to incorporate these alternative and restorative justice techniques into traditional criminal justice systems, especially in the cases of juvenile justice systems.


Disclaimer: This article is an original submission of the Author. Niti Manthan does not hold any liability arising out of this article. Kindly refer to our terms of use or write to us in case of any concerns.



ENDNOTES


[1]Judy Tsui, Breaking Free of the Prison Paradigm: Integrating Restorative Justice Techniques into Chicago’s Juvenile Justice System, 104 The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology (2014).

[1]Article 5 of United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice.

[1] U.S. Department of Justice, Guidelines for Victim-Sensitive Victim-Offender Mediation: Restorative Justice Through Dialogue (April 2000).

[1]Elizabeth E. Clark, Realigning Illinois Fiscal Priorities in Juvenile Justice, 98 ILL. B.J., (2010).

[1]Mark Umbreit, Restorative Justice Through Victim-Offender Mediation: A Multi-site Assessment, 1 W. Criminology Rev. 1 (1998).

[1]Ilyssa Wellikoff, Victim-Offender Mediation, and Violent Crimes: On the Way to Justice, 5 Journal of Conflict Resolution, https://cardozojcr.com/issues/volume-5-1/note-1/ (last visited Apr 19, 2021).

[1] Frida Eriksson, Victim-offender mediation in Sweden and South Africa, https://core.ac.uk/reader/16324440.

[1]B.S. Joshi v. the State of Haryana, (2003) 4 SCC 675.

[1]Ashok Sadarangani v. Union of India, (2013) 1 SCC (Civ) 298.



Liked the article ?
Share this:

Tags

india ads tv ads ban proposal anti ageing creams government 2006 micro small review big India Juvenile Justice rights Women justice Jurisdiction Constitution caa secularism amendment sedition Arbitration consumer complaint filing international laws wildlife protection animal laws USA china women empowerment pornography legal prostitution sex trafficking laws legalising Economy Measures RBI Coronavirus Reserve Bank of India stability coronavirus impact liquidity shantikanta das monetary policy repo rate moratorium disinformation fake news state of frenzy social media anger hate issue EpidemicDiseaseAct uniformcivilcode equality secular illegalimmigrants immigration assisteddying euthanasia police brutality custodial violence police efforts jail separation divorce hindu marriage family laws economic slowdown unemployment percapitaincome inflation GDP growth aggregate demand commercial surrogacy bill armed forces equal rights landmark judgement indian army transgender living conditions third gender Disability rights rape law Criminal law IPC Internship Program regulatory sandbox IRDA framework IRDA guidelines live environment RBI regulations pollution womeninmates punishment sexualassault wrongfulconvictions IPR EnvironmentLaws JudicialActivism Jurisprudence Internship singleparent adoption niti manthan prison reforms Niti manthan e-fradus cyber crimes It Laws Medico legal aid Media technology and democracy legal literacy Body Offences Housing infrastructure indian law fine global laws right to health fundamental right article 21 Indian penal code criminal law crimes against women rapecases IntellectualPropertyRights Trademark NuclearSecurity Cyberlaws judiciary petitions mercy petition review petition curative petition zero draft human rights business United nations ADR Law mediation negotiation conciliation Mahatama Gandhi economics technology technological unemployment network online consumption production working remotely law of sedition article 19 right to freedom and expression moblynching violence offence animalrights gayparenting pronouns fundamental duties Indian law Constitution of India covid19 criminal justice system constitutional administrative litigation Courts order commission report speedy trial Corrections legal aid legislature Police Successionlaw casestudy SARFAESI e-debate maritalrape 498A IPC Misuse nirbhaya rape case death penalty deterent theory covid-19 force majuere events Force Majeure Clauses coronavirus outbreak doctorine of frustration clauses contract UAPA 2019 Review indigenous people LabourLaws Familylaw dowry death white collar crimes plea bargaining menstruation myths defamation forgery events Results Phase 2 trespass homosexuality mental health intellectual property rights Patent rights crimes lockdown child abuse traditional crime crime rate phishing ransomware cybercrime malware domestic violence doctoring lis pendens applicability conditions insensitive media coverage Muslims media Death murder News channel ayodhya judgement Group Discussion Exceprts naturaljustice legalprincipals Supremecourt crpc Bail Legalethics legal guidelines telemedicine legal issues Laws Section 269 Section 270 cholera privacy concern Divorce Muslim Women retention of property yemen conflict competition law enforcement 10 years administrativelaw PiracyLaw juvenile justice EIA Draft 2020 30th June 2020 Environmental Impact Assessment Climate Change Laws Dissent Research Group juvenile crimes Administration environment conservation Sustainable Oceans Énvironment Appointments Service laws Compassionate Appointments policy legislation webinar scientist climatologist report policy change TPA property patent law section 144 principles of natural justice justice delayed instant justice work from home InformationTechnology persons with disabilities discrimination health girls disease community duties individual contemporary world common interests duality MRTP Act Indian economy competition commission of india Competition Act appraisal singaporean court section 377 Navtej singh judgement IHL war crimes humanitarian law ipc beyond india extra territorial jurisdiction wife maintenance desertion marriage #digital strike #cyber security chinese apps #chinese apps #ad-hoc arbitration #institutional arbitration #environmental law #environment #human rights #strict liability Lok Adalats US-India Abortion laws Live-in-relationships Indian Judiciary Universal Healthcare Rules Based World Order. YL3 victim dying declaration wish last wish truth balanced cooperative bank sarfaesi act Internet Ban Censorship Website Ban #DPSP #state #covid #IP black money racism Skin colour Political system Unrest accountability Jammu and Kashmir Article 370 Abrogation Kidnapping and Abduction Indo-Nepal brutality dk basu guidelines Conflict Changing dynamics democracy international disputes prostitution in India extradition laws and treaties Surrogacy laws case study Law and Order society Legal Implications regulatory framework Betting Gambling Seventh Schedule Central Government Betting Laws Rights of a Man cyber delinquency Juvenile Justice Act Doctrine Part Performance Section 53-A CERC sustainable development Grid Code electricity laws electricity control Mental HealthCare Act WHO National Trust Act Disaster Mangement Indian legal Framework Female Criminality social structure Corporate Laws Corporate Veil Company Election Laws Electoral Reforms Law Commission of India Article 324 Election Commission contempt of court rule of law supreme court principle of natural justice judges criticism high court Fertility Assisted Reproductive Technology Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Bill Legal Evolution Literature growth goods and services Predatory Pricing Market legal remedies cryptocurrency virtual currency santhanam committee ethical behavior border military LAC Aksai Chin revenge porn FIR SC/ ST Reservation artificialintelligence Privacy privacy specialmarriageact constitutional constitutionality Article 139A Education National Education Policy HRDMinistry feminism Gender Inequality Sex god juristic personality PIL Waste Management earth nature ecosystem public trust Section 420 ASCI Advertisements Covid-19 Online Dispute Resolution dispute JusticeOnTime Cyber Space Security election Cloning Senior citizens Human Rights arrest CrPC procedural laws curative legislation Ration card Judicial Review Writ Jurisdiction Internet Covid19 indian passport foreigners-act extradition law laws in India Inheritance Laws Section 6 Domicile CLAT NLU belgium extradition treaty vicarious liability law of torts common law International Commercial Arbitration Private Defence Legal Right energy consumption national solar mission international law economic sanction tax structure Reforms NDPS Act Section64A genocide research projects internships summer school Virtual Courts Digital India NDHM Press Regulation italian-marines fishermen kerala international waters arbitration womenrights witchhunting janaushadischeme healthcare laws medical national health policy healthcare national digital health mission world health organisation legal jurisprudente draft health data management 2020 concerns drawbacks ministry of health and family affair sting operations media trial press rights right to privacy Twitter Prashant Bhushan period leave probate essentials for will will Technical biometrics Laws for women settlement mandalcommission 30 years gandhi principles Indianlegalsystem nitimanthan CELRA Climate Change Phase 3 sakshiaggarwal communication skills youcanskilldevelopment client counselling soumikghoshal sbi protest farm acts agriculture farmers anti-farmers men Executive power constitutional law Article 73 finance transparency political parties bonds Sexual Harassment Ministry of Human Resource Development Educational Reforms DNA evidence sabarimala case untouchability cruelty misuse by women gender biased 488A ban of apps section 69A tiktok app compensation section 357A state s bankruptcy Insolvency_law_committee ibc insolvency_bankruptcy_act insolvency nclt students accessibility retributive theory regulations gender equality internet #righttoeducation nuclear weapon treaty legality advisory opinion international restorative justice punishment theory copyright law distance education virtual teaching Fundamental Rights Rape SC/ST Forest Rights Act Forest Conservation bitcoin child vaccination ibc suspension financial creditors ministry of corporate affairs substantial acquisition takeover public announcement control cci out of court settlement history banking law sebi stressed assets banking regulation dispute resolution professionalism private sector fund sourcing banks publication copyright infringement publishing house penguin environmental jurisprudence 2020 indian legal system acquisition section 62 convertible investees companies act ABUSE ONLINE IPC CRIME WOMEN INDIA ONLINE ABUSE WOMEN CRIME CRIMINAL LAW registrations open competition sushruta apply extempore centre for medical and health law ethic studies medical and health law sex workers prevention religion conversion extra-territorial technological advancement cerestrial environment_protection infrastructure goa doctrineofpleasure crown Arrest code of civil procedure offender access to justice concilation remedy presidentialelections developing nations tiktok universal health coverage comedians freedom of speech and expression OTT Platforms Content Regulation Section 375 forced marriages Precautionary measures Guidelines covid crisis women assault section 353 cops andhra pradesh chief minister dream 11 economic impact online gambling salary income tax rti spam troll misinformation IT Laws data protection information technology act methods civil law section 118 kerala police act section 66a animal rights slaughter customs act CAROTAR FTA TARRIF rules of origin hardship of importer separation of power rights of animals need for amendement meagre punishment legitimacy constitutionalism liability right to healthy environment degrading environment social responsibility restructuring mergers amalgamation traffacking turkey challenge accepted outrage unity child rights rte right to education non-access conclusive proof marital relationships matrimony arbitral award thorium atomic energy act nuclear energy nuclear power atomic energy swadhar home widows vrindavan infringement comparative advertisement trademarks act income tax act non resident indians FEMA MONARCHY SIKKIM namgyal dynasty partner state ONUS guilty Burden of proof legal burden parties self defense legal right Indian constitution prostitutes Winter school International Criminal Law Ministry of Finance Welfare Digital Budget Finance Budget 2021 Democracy Coups Myanmar Voter Fraud Corruption corrupt governments voter fraud unrecognized ineffective Dictators projects development jungle capital assets funds partership water riparian basin collaboration advocate amit mazumdar soft skills advocacy terrorism massacres gun ICC ivorycoast LaurentGbagbo Space Policy Treaties Space Outer space Foreign award public policy ZERO FIR LAW hindu law INDIA PROPERTY RIGHTS DAUGHTER WOMEN RIGHTS AMENDEMENTS HINDU SUCCCESSION distributed ledger technology block chains digital age Exception 2 Habeas Corpus Case Adults Care and Protection Juvenile delinquency Medical Negligence Due Care Criminal Liability Civil Liability Stockholm Conference Uniform Civil Code Personal Laws mental disorder mental health care act advance directive bail sentence CEDAW NCRB Sexual abuse International Bill of Rights POCSO Act Comparative analysis Ted Talk Renewable Energy Trend Energy Projection advaadvance directiv,psychiatry Schedule VII of CA 2013 Amendment 2019 Companies Act 2013 CSR Promoting Innovation and Creativity World Intellectual Property Organisation Restructuring Education Global Innovation Index American Bar Association Offshoring Legal Services Legal Process Outsourcing Marital Rape executive Payment and Settlement System Act of 2007 anti-money laundering Fintech Online Education Inclusion of Technology 5+3+3+4 Design law students call for papers authors editors medical students coparcenory partition safety acts healthworker Policy change Housing Rent Model law Projects Tenancy Central Vista Project Parliament of India supreme court of India space debris Earth orbit Deportation International Law #exploitation exploitation convention equity lawyer movement public interest intoxication alcohol defence involuntary Immoral Traffic Prevention Act Shanbaug Supreme to regarding Euthanasia Difference between life 21 Article and Active Aruna Right Case Passive Court Die Killing Mercy peace challenges policies public crime medical law and ethics Due process of law Procedure established by law misrepresentation enforceability help o&ng mines act petroleum act queer 377 lgbtq anil deshmukh maharashtra shakti act shakti bill daughter personal law devolution testamentary right disturbed areas penalty consumer redressal age evaluations RTI Evidence Act Hearsay Evidence Hearsay Indian Evidence Act Bullying Malice Transferred Malice Transferred Reasonable restrictions unreasonable profits Customer’s consent Unfair trade practices Stoic Evolution of Law Stoicism Temples Hindu Religious and Charitable Endowments Act Endowments Creditor Guarantee Contract Principal Debtor Surety Guarantor Intention Section 304 of IPC Culpable Homicide Knowledge breach of duty legal injury legal duty Negligence inter-country adoption CARA Hague Convention Right of health Sushruta Criminal case Ethics Political Parole State quasi civil social justice Sec 125 torts novus actus interveniens third party beneficiary space law isro nasa criminal trial call out culture kangaroo court extrajudicial accusation corporate social responsibility company law indemnity indemnifier indemnity holder collegium njac surveillance hacking nationalisation Bank Nationalization social control nota voters sports law stem cells research patentibility of stem cells patent Arbitration and Conciliation (Amendment) Act secrecyofballot cigarettes health awareness tobacco COTPA pardonpower president doctrineofseparability doctrineofseverability WMD Vietnam Dioxin Operation Ranch Hand Agent Orange Anthrax Family,Women,Hindu,Muslim,Divorce,Marriage Dog tracking evidence,credibility,reliability, international judicial authority chequebounce DishonorofCheque Sec138 NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENTS ACT,1881 anticompetitiveagreements Article 20(3) right against self-incrimination breach of contract contract law police atrocity victim compensation rehabilitation insider trading share market financial emergency Article 360 specific relief act Private International LAw foreign Judgement Recognition Bio-Medical Waste recycling health care originality ayurveda Ayurvedic treatment public health ancient medicine HIV AIDS NGOs Article 24 #PUDRvs.UOI labor Article 23 conflict between centre and state Indian Federalism concept of federalism youth offenders Tamil Nadu ethics of AI Artifiicial Intelligence karnataka Protection of Right to Freedom of Religion Bill,2021 Language in High Courts Religion Conversion laws Pride Intersex