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Ombudsman: The Pillar of Accountability and Transparency

Nov. 09, 2023   •   Abhinav Raizada


The term "Ombudsman" resonates with a profound sense of accountability and transparency, firmly etching its place in the democratic framework of nations across the globe. It embodies an unwavering commitment to safeguarding the rights of citizens and ensuring that the machinery of government operates with integrity and fairness. In this blog, we embark on an enlightening journey through the realm of the Ombudsman, delving into its essence, origin, and enduring significance. We shall explore the reasons behind its existence, the historical context in which it evolved, its presence in the annals of Indian governance, pivotal movements such as Anna Hazare's crusade for the Lokpal Bill, the contemporary landscape of Ombudsman institutions, and the challenges they encounter along with potential solutions. Through this exploration, we'll uncover the indispensable role of the Ombudsman as the guardian of democratic ideals, ensuring that the voices of the people are heard, their grievances addressed, and public institutions held to the highest standards of accountability.

What is meant by the term Ombudsman?

An ombudsman is a dedicated, impartial, and non-partisan official/ institution appointed or constituted to act as a bridge between the public and government bodies or public institutions. This role is vital in ensuring that these bodies operate within the boundaries of legality, fairness, and justice. Ombudsmen investigate complaints, disputes, and allegations of misconduct, aiming to uncover the truth, rectify wrongs, and maintain the integrity of the public service sector.[1]

"Ombudsman" represents a beacon of hope for individuals navigating the complex web of government bureaucracies and public institutions. It encapsulates a concept deeply rooted in democratic principles, upholding the ideals of accountability, transparency, and the protection of individual rights. To understand the essence of the term, it is essential to delve into its historical origins and its multifaceted significance in contemporary society.

Concept and Origin

The concept of Ombudsman has its roots in Sweden, where it was first introduced in the early 19th century. The term "Ombudsman" linguistically means a "representative" or "agent." The term was popularized by the Swedish statesman, Jacob Wallenberg, who proposed the creation of a parliamentary representative charged with investigating complaints from the public.

The Swedish Parliament, known as the Riksdag, established the office of the Parliamentary Ombudsman in 1809, making Sweden the first country to formalize this institution. This marked the inception of a concept that would resonate with democracies worldwide. The Ombudsman idea quickly gained popularity and spread to other countries. The key qualities of an Ombudsman ensure that he can effectively investigate complaints and hold government agencies accountable without undue political influence.[2]

Each nation has adapted the concept to suit its specific needs, resulting in diverse models of Ombudsman institutions at different levels of government, including national, state, and local levels. The underlying principle behind the Ombudsman concept is to address the power imbalance that often exists between individuals and government entities. Public institutions wield significant authority, and individuals may feel powerless when faced with governmental bureaucracy or wrongdoing.

Ombudsmen provide a counterbalance; empowering individuals by giving them a platform to voice their concerns and ensuring their complaints are heard and addressed. It serves as a critical check and balance on the exercise of governmental power. It contributes to the robustness of a democratic system by holding public officials accountable, rectifying injustices, and promoting good governance. By facilitating the resolution of disputes and the reprisal of grievances, the Ombudsmen play a pivotal role in upholding the principles of justice, equality, and the rule of law.[3]

Key Attributes of an Ombudsman

  1. Independence: An Ombudsman operates autonomously, free from undue influence or interference from political, governmental, or institutional entities. This independence is crucial for maintaining objectivity and impartiality in their investigations.
  2. Impartiality: Ombudsmen are neutral, and committed to treating all parties fairly and without prejudice. They do not advocate for the government or the complainant but serve as an objective intermediary.
  3. Non-partisanship: Ombudsmen do not align themselves with any political party or interest group. Their commitment is solely to the principles of justice, equity, and ethical governance.
  4. Accessibility: Ombudsmen are accessible to the public. They provide an open channel for individuals to voice their concerns, complaints, or grievances regarding government actions or public services.
  5. Transparency: Ombudsman investigations and findings are typically made public to ensure transparency and accountability. This transparency fosters trust in the process and the institutions being scrutinized.

Why is it required?

The need for an Ombudsman arises from the fundamental principles of democracy and good governance. Several reasons underscore the importance of having an Ombudsman:

a) Safeguarding Citizens' Rights: An Ombudsman is a guardian of citizens' rights, acting as a buffer against potential abuses of power by public officials and institutions. It provides a channel for individuals to seek redress for grievances, unfair treatment, or corruption.

b) Enhancing Accountability: Ombudsmen help enhance transparency and accountability within government organizations by investigating complaints and misconduct impartially. This reduces the risk of corruption and abuse of power, fostering public trust.

c) Promoting Good Governance: By investigating complaints and recommending remedies, Ombudsmen contribute to improving the efficiency, fairness, and effectiveness of government operations.

d) Resolving Disputes: Ombudsmen play a vital role in dispute resolution, often resolving issues without the need for costly and time-consuming legal proceedings.

e) Empowering Citizens: An Ombudsman empowers individuals to hold their government accountable for its actions, encouraging active citizenship and participation in the democratic process.

History of Ombudsman in India

The history of the Ombudsman in India is a journey marked by persistent demands for transparency, accountability, and a strong anti-corruption mechanism. This history reflects the nation's unwavering commitment to democratic principles and the continuous struggle to combat corruption and enhance good governance.

Pre-Independence Period:

India's history of addressing grievances and complaints against the government can be traced back to pre-independence times. British colonial rule had established some mechanisms for citizens to voice their concerns and grievances, although these were often constrained and lacked the attributes of independence and impartiality that define modern Ombudsman institutions. Despite these limitations, these early mechanisms laid the foundation for future developments.

Post-Independence Period:

After gaining independence in 1947, India continued to evolve its governance structure and the means to address public grievances. The Administrative Reforms Commission, established in 1966, played a crucial role in advocating for the establishment of an Ombudsman-like institution. However, it was not until 1973 that the first Ombudsman institution, known as the "Lokpal," was proposed by the Administrative Reforms Commission and endorsed by the government. The term "Lokpal" combines two Hindi words: "Lok," meaning people, and "Pal," meaning protector or caretaker. The Lokpal was envisioned as a guardian of the people's interests, entrusted with the authority to investigate allegations of corruption against public officials, including those holding high-ranking government positions.

Anna Hazare Movement on Lokpal Bill

Anna Hazare's movement for the establishment of the Lokpal, an anti-corruption Ombudsman in India, represents a significant chapter in the nation's history. This movement not only captured the imagination of the masses but also revitalized the national discourse on accountability, transparency, and the fight against corruption. It serves as a compelling case study on the power of civil society to push for essential reforms within a democratic framework.

Background and Context:

The roots of Anna Hazare's movement can be traced back to the widespread frustration and anger within Indian society regarding the pervasive issue of corruption. Corruption had become a part of everyday life, from small-scale bribery to large-scale scams, and it eroded public trust in the government and its institutions. Citizens were desperate for a mechanism to combat this menace and hold public officials accountable.[4]

Anna Hazare - The Gandhian Crusader:

Anna Hazare, a social activist and a staunch follower of Mahatma Gandhi's principles, emerged as the face of this anti-corruption movement. His decision to go on a hunger strike for the cause of a strong Lokpal Bill galvanized millions of Indians across the country. Hazare's lifelong commitment to truth, non-violence, and transparency resonated with a society yearning for change.

The Demand for the Lokpal Bill:

At the heart of Anna Hazare's movement was the demand for the Lokpal Bill, which aimed to establish an independent Ombudsman with the authority to investigate corruption allegations against public officials, including the Prime Minister and other high-ranking government officers. The Bill proposed a mechanism to tackle corruption head-on and promised accountability and transparency in government operations.

The Mass Mobilization:

Anna Hazare's fast unto death, beginning on April 5, 2011, attracted immense public attention and support. The fast, conducted at Delhi's Jantar Mantar, became a focal point for those frustrated with corruption. People from all walks of life joined the movement, including students, professionals, activists, and the common man. The use of social media played a pivotal role in mobilizing supporters and keeping the public informed.

The Impact:

Anna Hazare's movement had several significant impacts:

  1. Public Awareness: The movement brought the issue of corruption to the forefront of public consciousness. It engaged citizens, many of whom were previously apathetic or unaware of the scale of the problem.
  2. Pressure on Government: The government was compelled to respond to the public's demands. It established a Joint Drafting Committee comprising government and civil society representatives to draft the Lokpal Bill.
  3. Civil Society's Influence: The movement demonstrated the significant role civil society can play in shaping public policy and demanding accountability from the government.
  4. Discussion and Debate: The movement led to widespread discussions and debates about the Lokpal Bill and the broader issue of corruption in India. It engaged the youth and brought the problem of corruption to the forefront of political discourse.

Challenges and Controversies:

While the movement garnered widespread support, it was not without its share of criticisms and controversies. Some critics questioned the methods used, the fast-unto-death being a subject of ethical debate. The movement also faced accusations of being politically motivated or overly simplistic in its approach.


The movement led to the formation of a joint committee to draft a revised Lokpal Bill. While the Jan Lokpal Bill wasn't passed as initially drafted, the Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act, 2013, became a reality. This was a historic moment for India as it established the Lokpal at the national level and Lokayuktas at the state level, serving as Ombudsman institutions to investigate allegations of corruption against public officials. Anna Hazare's movement for the Lokpal Bill underscored the power of a determined civil society to push for essential reforms in a democracy. It mobilized millions of people, awakened the nation to the perils of corruption, and ultimately led to the establishment of the Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act. The movement serves as a testament to the persistent quest for transparency and accountability in governance and the impact that individuals and civil society can have in shaping the destiny of a nation. Anna Hazare's name is now synonymous with the fight against corruption, and his movement remains an inspiring example for those who seek change within the democratic framework.[5]

The Current Scenario:

The Lokpal is vested with the authority to investigate allegations of corruption against public officials, including those at the highest levels of government. The Lokayuktas perform a similar role at the state level. These institutions play a crucial role in addressing corruption and ensuring accountability in public administration.

Problems and its Redressal:


The implementation of an Ombudsman system, such as the Lokpal and Lokayuktas in India, is not without its challenges. Some of the issues that have been observed include:

  1. Delays in Appointments: One of the primary challenges has been the delay in appointing Lokpal and Lokayuktas. These institutions are meant to act as a check on corruption and misconduct, but their effectiveness is hindered when key positions remain vacant. Appointments should be expedited to ensure the timely resolution of complaints.
  2. Resource Constraints: Ombudsman offices may face resource constraints that can affect their ability to thoroughly investigate complaints and ensure timely resolutions. Adequate funding and staffing are crucial for their effective functioning.
  3. Political Interference: Ombudsman institutions must remain independent to function effectively. Concerns about potential political interference or influence can undermine their impartiality and hinder their ability to carry out investigations without fear or favor.
  4. Public Awareness and Accessibility: Many citizens may not be fully aware of the Ombudsman's role and how to approach them with grievances. Greater efforts are needed to educate the public about the Ombudsman's functions and how to submit complaints. Accessibility, both physical and digital, should be enhanced to make it easier for people to lodge their complaints.


Addressing these challenges are crucial to ensure the Ombudsman system functions effectively and fulfills its intended role in promoting transparency and accountability. Here are some steps that can be taken to redress these problems:

  1. Prompt Appointments: Governments should prioritize the appointment of Ombudsman officials, filling vacancies as quickly as possible. This can be achieved through transparent selection processes that emphasize the candidates' integrity, experience, and impartiality.
  2. Adequate Funding and Resources: Allocating sufficient resources to Ombudsman offices is essential. This includes financial resources, staff, and infrastructure. Adequate resources are necessary to conduct thorough investigations and process complaints efficiently.
  3. Independence Safeguards: To address concerns about political interference, safeguards should be put in place to ensure the Ombudsman's independence. These might include clear appointment procedures, fixed terms for Ombudsman officials, and strong legal protections against removal without just cause.
  4. Public Awareness Campaigns: Governments and Ombudsman institutions should launch public awareness campaigns to educate citizens about the Ombudsman's role and how to file complaints. This can be done through various channels, including public service announcements, social media, and educational programs.
  5. Transparency and Reporting: Ombudsman institutions should maintain transparency in their operations. This includes publishing annual reports on their activities, findings, and recommendations. Public access to these reports ensures accountability and builds public trust in the institution.
  6. Digital Accessibility: To increase accessibility, Ombudsman offices should provide online platforms for lodging complaints. This makes it easier for individuals to submit their grievances, especially in cases where they may be geographically distant from Ombudsman offices.
  7. Collaboration and Coordination: Cooperation between the Ombudsman and other relevant government agencies can enhance the effectiveness of investigations. These agencies should work together to address systemic issues and implement the Ombudsman's recommendations.
  8. Whistleblower Protection: Establish and strengthen mechanisms for protecting whistleblowers who report corruption or misconduct. Encouraging individuals to come forward with information is essential for the Ombudsman's work.


In conclusion, the Ombudsman, both in its historical context and its contemporary application, remains a cornerstone of democracy and a symbol of accountability, transparency, and justice. The concept of Ombudsman, originating in Sweden and evolving across nations, has consistently demonstrated its value in safeguarding citizens' rights and ensuring that government functions with integrity. The Indian history of Ombudsman, exemplified by the Lokpal and Lokayuktas, showcases the nation's enduring commitment to combat corruption and promote good governance. Anna Hazare's movement for the Lokpal Bill was a watershed moment, underscoring the power of civil society to effect change within a democratic framework.

Despite the challenges, from delayed appointments to resource constraints, these issues can be redressed through proactive measures, including public awareness campaigns, transparency, and safeguarding the Ombudsman's independence. The Ombudsman, as a symbol of hope and accountability, stands as a testament to the enduring pursuit of justice and fairness in an ever-evolving democratic world. It remains a beacon of hope for citizens, promising that their voices will be heard, their grievances addressed, and the principles of democracy upheld.


[1] Nick O'Brien, “What Future for the Ombudsman” 86 The Political Quarterly 72 (2015)

[2] Id. [1]

[3] Trevor Buck, Richard Kirkham,, The Ombudsman Enterprise and Administrative Justice 53 (Routledge, Ney York, USA, 2nd edn., 2016)

[4] Khandekar, A., & Reddy, D. S. (2015). An Indian summer: Corruption, Class, and the Lokpal protests. Journal of Consumer Culture, 15(2), 221-247. Doc.

[5]Dr. Rajesh Bohra, “The Journey of Lokpal in India: Background and Challenges” 39 International Journal for Innovative Research in Multidisciplinary Field 132 (2022)

Disclaimer: The author affirms that this article is an entirely original work, never before submitted for publication at any journal, blog, or other publication avenue. Any unintentional resemblance to previously published material is purely coincidental. This article is intended solely for academic and scholarly discussion. The author takes personal responsibility for any potential infringement of intellectual property rights belonging to any individuals, organizations, governments, or institutions.

About the Author: Abhinav Raizada is a fourth-year BA.LL.B student at the Faculty of Law, The Maharaja SayajiRao University of Baroda, Vadodara.

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